Wildlife species assessments (detailed version)

Results are grouped by taxon and then by status category. The range of occurrence in Canada (by province, territory or ocean) and history of status designation are provided for each wildlife species.

Mammals

Caribou (Torngat Mountains population)
Common Name:
Caribou (Torngat Mountains population)
Scientific Name:
Rangifer tarandus
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
C2a(ii)
Reason for Designation:
This population is restricted to the Ungava Peninsula of eastern Québec, northern Labrador, and Nunavut (Killiniq and adjacent islands). A quantitative trend is not available because survey data are limited, but the total population was estimated to be 5,000 individuals in 1980 and 930 individuals in 2014, suggesting a significant decline. Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge also indicates a decline. The population meets Endangered status because the estimated 698 mature animals exist in a single population, a population decline is evident, and a decline is predicted to continue because of harvest and a decrease in habitat quality associated with climate change. The population may be facing imminent extinction because of the low numbers remaining.
Range:
NU, QC, NL
Status History:
Designated Endangered in November 2016.
Caribou (Barren-ground population)
Common Name:
Caribou (Barren-ground population)
Scientific Name:
Rangifer tarandus
Status:
Threatened
Assessment Criteria:
Meets Endangered, A2acd+4acd, but designated Threatened because it does not appear to be facing imminent extinction or extirpation.
Reason for Designation:
Members of this population give birth on the open arctic tundra, and most subpopulations (herds) winter in vast subarctic forests. Well-known for its large aggregations, lengthy migrations, and significant cultural and social value to northern Aboriginal Peoples and other Canadians, its 14-15 subpopulations range from northeastern Alaska to western Hudson Bay and Baffin Island. Numbering more than 2 million individuals in the early 1990s, the current population is estimated at about 800,000. Most subpopulations have declined dramatically, but two are increasing, including the Porcupine Caribou Herd. For 70% of the population with sufficient data to quantify trends, the decline is estimated at 56% over the past three generations (since 1989), with several of the largest herds having declined by >80% from peak numbers. Available survey data for an additional 25% of the total population also indicate declines. Evidence from both local Aboriginal people and scientific studies suggests that most herds have undergone natural fluctuations in numbers in the past; however, available demographic data indicate no sign of rapid recovery at this time and cumulative threats are without historical precedent. Status meets criteria for Endangered because of a reduction in numbers of ≥50%, but Threatened is recommended because, overall, this population does not appear to be facing imminent extinction at this time. Despite worrisome declines across most of the range, the current numerical abundance of the Porcupine Caribou Herd and the initiation of numerous management actions by governments, wildlife management boards, and communities support Threatened as a more appropriate conservation status. The status of these subpopulations will have to be carefully monitored and may warrant re-assessment within five years.
Range:
YT, NT, NU, AB, SK, MB
Status History:
Designated Threatened in November 2016.
Nuttall's Cottontail nuttallii subspecies
Common Name:
Nuttall's Cottontail nuttallii subspecies
Scientific Name:
Sylvilagus nuttallii nuttallii
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This small rabbit is confined to shrub-steppe habitats in the southern Okanagan-Similkameen valleys of British Columbia near the border with Washington State (US). Remaining habitat in British Columbia is in continuing decline from urbanization and agriculture, particularly conversion to vineyards, but population impacts are unquantified due to lack of survey effort. Rescue potential from Washington is minimal because of declining availability of habitat in Canada and new protected areas in the region are outside the core range of this animal. This species may become threatened if trends in habitat loss in the valleys are not reversed.
Range:
BC
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in April 1994, April 2006, and November 2016.

Birds

Pink-footed Shearwater
Common Name:
Pink-footed Shearwater
Scientific Name:
Ardenna creatopus
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
B2ab(iii,v)
Reason for Designation:
This long-lived seabird nests on only three islands off the coast of Chile, where it has suffered significant declines due to nest predation by introduced predators, exploitation by humans and habitat degradation. It also experiences mortality due to incidental take by fisheries across its range, including important foraging areas off the coast of British Columbia. Bycatch risk from fisheries has increased over the last three generations. This species is also sensitive to offshore oil spills.
Range:
BC, Pacific Ocean
Status History:
Designated Threatened in May 2004. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in November 2016.
Prothonotary Warbler
Common Name:
Prothonotary Warbler
Scientific Name:
Protonotaria citrea
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
C2a(i); D1
Reason for Designation:
In Canada, this species breeds only in deciduous forest swamps in the Carolinian region of southwestern Ontario. The population is small, fewer than 30 individuals, and at risk of decreasing further. This warbler is vulnerable to degradation of breeding habitat from wetland drainage, forest harvest, development, invasion of European Common Reed, and loss of tree canopy cover due to dieback caused by Emerald Ash Borer. Loss of mangrove wintering habitat to aquaculture and coastal development in Central and South America poses additional threats.
Range:
ON
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in April 1984. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in April 1996. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000, April 2007, and November 2016.
Evening Grosbeak
Common Name:
Evening Grosbeak
Scientific Name:
Coccothraustes vespertinus
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This large finch is widely distributed across Canada’s forests, but has exhibited significant long-term declines (77-90%) over most of its range, since 1970. Over the past decades, some data suggest a further decline of nearly 40%, while other data indicate stabilization at a lower level. Threats to the species include reduced availability of mature and old-growth mixed wood and conifer forests, collisions with windows, and mortality associated with feeding on grit and salt along roads in winter.
Range:
YT, NT, BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, PE, NS, NL
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in November 2016.

Reptiles

Blanding's Turtle (Great Lakes / St. Lawrence population)
Common Name:
Blanding's Turtle (Great Lakes / St. Lawrence population)
Scientific Name:
Emydoidea blandingii
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
A2bcde+3cde+4bcde
Reason for Designation:
This population, although widespread, is declining because of several observed, inferred, and projected threats. The most serious threats include: road and rail mortality; illegal collection for the pet, food and traditional medicine trades; habitat loss due to invasive European Common Reed; development and wetland alterations; and, increasing numbers of predators. Quantitative analyses estimate that the total number of mature individuals in this population has declined > 60% over the last three generations (due to large-scale wetland drainage after European arrival) and will decline 50% over the next three generations because of road mortality alone.
Range:
ON, QC
Status History:
Designated Threatened in May 2005. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in November 2016.
Blanding's Turtle (Nova Scotia population)
Common Name:
Blanding's Turtle (Nova Scotia population)
Scientific Name:
Emydoidea blandingii
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)
Reason for Designation:
The current population size is < 500 mature individuals. The three main subpopulations are genetically distinct from each other and from other populations in Québec, Ontario, and the United States. Although the largest subpopulation occurs in a protected area, its numbers are still declining, possibly still showing the effects of historical mortality that took place 30-60 years ago. The other subpopulations are susceptible to increasing habitat degradation from forestry activities, recreation, water-level manipulation, and cottage development. Two subpopulations are very small (< 5 adults) and may not be viable. Threats across the range include increased pressure from predators, mortality from on- and off-road vehicles, vulnerability to collection, potential impacts of exotic predatory fishes, and the effects of climate change.
Range:
NS
Status History:
Designated Threatened in April 1993. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2005 and November 2016.
Western Painted Turtle (Pacific Coast population)
Common Name:
Western Painted Turtle (Pacific Coast population)
Scientific Name:
Chrysemys picta bellii
Status:
Threatened
Assessment Criteria:
A2ce+3ce+4ce; C2a(i)
Reason for Designation:
The distribution of this population overlaps with an area of dense human population in southwestern British Columbia, including the Lower Fraser Valley, where wetland loss has been extensive. Across its range, this population continues to face multiple threats from habitat loss and alteration, road mortality, and introduced species, such as Bullfrog and introduced turtles. Survey efforts within the past 10 years have revealed many new localities, bringing the total number of occupied waterbodies to over 80, grouped within 39 clusters. However, the Canadian population and local subpopulations are small and many, especially in the Lower Fraser Valley, are declining or considered not viable. The long-term persistence of the Canadian population remains precarious.
Range:
BC
Status History:
Designated Endangered in April 2006. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in November 2016.
Western Painted Turtle (Intermountain - Rocky Mountain population)
Common Name:
Western Painted Turtle (Intermountain - Rocky Mountain population)
Scientific Name:
Chrysemys picta bellii
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This population occurs mainly in larger valleys, which have been subjected to extensive wetland loss and habitat alteration from human activities. The population is suspected to be declining because of continuing loss and fragmentation of habitats and road mortality. The number of turtles is likely small, and the population may become Threatened if threats are neither reversed nor managed with demonstrable effectiveness.
Range:
BC
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in April 2006. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2016.
Western Painted Turtle (Prairie / Western Boreal - Canadian Shield population)
Common Name:
Western Painted Turtle (Prairie / Western Boreal - Canadian Shield population)
Scientific Name:
Chrysemys picta bellii
Status:
Not at Risk
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This population occurs in numerous waterbodies across its wide range. Local declines have undoubtedly occurred from habitat loss, alteration, and fragmentation, and these threats continue. However, there is no evidence of widespread declines or range contraction, and large areas of habitat are still relatively remote and with low threats.
Range:
AB, SK, MB, ON
Status History:
Designated Not at Risk in April 2006. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2016.

Fishes

Channel Darter (Lake Erie populations)
Common Name:
Channel Darter (Lake Erie populations)
Scientific Name:
Percina copelandi
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
B1ab(iii,iv,v)+2ab(iii,iv,v)
Reason for Designation:
This small-bodied species occupies nearshore lake and river habitats that are undergoing major shoreline modifications and the negative impact of the invasive Round Goby, having resulted in likely extirpation from large areas of Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair.
Range:
ON
Status History:
The species was considered a single unit and designated Threatened in April 1993. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2002. When the species was split into separate units in November 2016, the "Lake Erie populations" unit was designated Endangered.
Channel Darter (Lake Ontario populations)
Common Name:
Channel Darter (Lake Ontario populations)
Scientific Name:
Percina copelandi
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)
Reason for Designation:
This small-bodied species is limited to three small watersheds. The primary threat is the invasive Round Goby, which is now found throughout the Trent River and has resulted in declines in the abundance of this population. For the time being, populations along the Moira and Salmon rivers are largely unaffected by Round Goby. However, introductions upstream of dams via bait bucket transfers are considered likely.
Range:
ON
Status History:
The species was considered a single unit and designated Threatened in April 1993. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2002. When the species was split into separate units in November 2016, the "Lake Ontario populations" unit was designated Endangered.
Speckled Dace
Common Name:
Speckled Dace
Scientific Name:
Rhinichthys osculus
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
Reason for Designation:
This species reaches its northern limit in south central British Columbia where it is restricted to the Kettle River watershed. While the species has shown some resilience to the effects of drought, it is nevertheless threatened by a combination of low flows due to water extractions and climate change and to forestry and agricultural effluents.
Range:
BC
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in April 1980. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in November 2002, April 2006, and in November 2016.
Coho Salmon (Interior Fraser population)
Common Name:
Coho Salmon (Interior Fraser population)
Scientific Name:
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Status:
Threatened
Assessment Criteria:
A4cde
Reason for Designation:
This population experienced declines in excess of 60% in the number of mature individuals in the 1990s because of a reduction in marine survival, changes in freshwater habitats, and overexploitation, which resulted in a designation of Endangered in 2002. The population increased in abundance from 2005 to 2012 but escapement in 2014 and 2015 was very low. Marine survival rate has deteriorated. There are a number of threats to the freshwater habitat related to invasive species, drought, increased water temperatures, land use, and increased urbanization. All of these factors are suspected to cause reductions in numbers exceeding 30% over three generations including years in the recent past and the future.
Range:
BC Pacific Ocean
Status History:
Designated Endangered in May 2002. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in November 2016.
Pygmy Whitefish (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence populations)
Common Name:
Pygmy Whitefish (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence populations)
Scientific Name:
Prosopium coulterii
Status:
Threatened
Assessment Criteria:
A2be+4be
Reason for Designation:
This small-bodied freshwater fish has experienced dramatic declines in abundance over the last several decades, with an overall estimated decline of 48% since 2000. The continued presence of invasive fishes and recovery of native predatory fishes may threaten or limit recovery, respectively.
Range:
ON
Status History:
Designated Threatened in November 2016.
Westslope Cutthroat Trout (Saskatchewan - Nelson Rivers populations)
Common Name:
Westslope Cutthroat Trout (Saskatchewan - Nelson Rivers populations)
Scientific Name:
Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi
Status:
Threatened
Assessment Criteria:
B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
Reason for Designation:
This species inhabits cold streams and lakes in southwestern Alberta. It currently has a small and declining range and is severely fragmented. Over the last century, it has undergone substantial range contractions currently to less than 20% of that observed historically. Initially range contraction was due to overharvest and, more recently, due to a combination of hybridization with Rainbow Trout and habitat deterioration. The recent detection of Whirling Disease in Alberta presents an additional threat to this species.
Range:
AB
Status History:
Designated Threatened in May 2005. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2006 and November 2016.
Channel Darter (St. Lawrence populations)
Common Name:
Channel Darter (St. Lawrence populations)
Scientific Name:
Percina copelandi
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This small-bodied species is broadly distributed, but there is evidence of extirpation at some localities within its range. The species is subjected to a variety of threats related to the impact of the invasive Round Goby and pollution. The species may become Threatened if these threats are not effectively managed.
Range:
ON QC
Status History:
The species was considered a single unit and designated Threatened in April 1993. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2002. When the species was split into separate units in November 2016, the "St. Lawrence populations" unit was designated Special Concern.
Pygmy Whitefish (Waterton Lake population)
Common Name:
Pygmy Whitefish (Waterton Lake population)
Scientific Name:
Prosopium coulterii
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This small-bodied freshwater fish is known from a single lake in southwestern Alberta. The population size is relatively small and a change in water quality or habitat induced by local pollution or climate change could put the population at risk.
Range:
AB
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in November 2016.
Westslope Cutthroat Trout (Pacific populations)
Common Name:
Westslope Cutthroat Trout (Pacific populations)
Scientific Name:
Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This species inhabits cold streams and lakes in southeastern British Columbia. Although some subpopulations appear to be stable, others are experiencing substantial hybridization with Rainbow Trout, most are susceptible to increasing water temperatures associated with climate change, and many are exposed to substantial recreational harvest. The recent discovery of Whirling Disease close to the range of these populations is an additional cause for concern.
Range:
BC
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in May 2005. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2006 and November 2016.
Blue Shark (North Atlantic population)
Common Name:
Blue Shark (North Atlantic population)
Scientific Name:
Prionace glauca
Status:
Not at Risk
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This species is productive, relative to other pelagic shark species. The species has a single highly migratory population in the North Atlantic, of which a portion is present in Canadian waters seasonally. Catch rates from the Canadian fishery from 1995 to 2013 are stable or slightly increasing, and there is no trend in the updated size composition of the catch from 2001 to 2016. Bycatch issues identified in the previous assessment have been reduced through management measures. Eight fishery-dependent indices used in a recent (2015) stock assessment show no overall trend. Most population models integrating those indices showed no decline in spawning-stock biomass.
Range:
QC, NB, PEI, NS, NL, Atlantic Ocean
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in April 2006. Status re-examined and designated Not at Risk in November 2016.
Blue Shark (North Pacific population)
Common Name:
Blue Shark (North Pacific population)
Scientific Name:
Prionace glauca
Status:
Not at Risk
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This species is productive, relative to other pelagic shark species. The species has a single highly migratory population in the North Pacific, of which a portion is present in Canadian waters seasonally. Fishery-dependent abundance indices from smaller areas show various trends from the mid-1970s to 2013. A population assessment that integrates these indices suggests abundance has recently increased. There are no significant threats to this species in Canadian waters.
Range:
BC, Pacific Ocean
Status History:
Species considered in April 2006 and placed in the Data Deficient category. Status re-examined and designated Not at Risk in November 2016.
Pygmy Whitefish (Pacific populations)
Common Name:
Pygmy Whitefish (Pacific populations)
Scientific Name:
Prosopium coulterii
Status:
Not at Risk
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This small-bodied freshwater fish is relatively broadly distributed across many lakes and some rivers. Most lakes and rivers are relatively isolated from human impacts, and there are no known imminent threats to any population.
Range:
YT, BC
Status History:
Designated Not at Risk in November 2016.
Pygmy Whitefish (Western Arctic populations)
Common Name:
Pygmy Whitefish (Western Arctic populations)
Scientific Name:
Prosopium coulterii
Status:
Not at Risk
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This small-bodied freshwater fish is relatively broadly distributed across many lakes and some rivers. Most lakes and rivers are relatively isolated from human impacts, and there are very few known imminent threats to any population.
Range:
NT, BC, AB
Status History:
Designated Not at Risk in November 2016.
Pygmy Whitefish (Saskatchewan - Nelson Rivers populations)
Common Name:
Pygmy Whitefish (Saskatchewan - Nelson Rivers populations)
Scientific Name:
Prosopium coulterii
Status:
Data Deficient
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This freshwater fish has only recently been documented in four lakes in northwestern Ontario, but may exist in others. Quantitative data on population sizes, geographic range, and known threats are too limited to determine status.
Range:
ON
Status History:
Species considered in November 2016 and placed in the Data Deficient category.
Pygmy Whitefish (Southwestern Yukon Beringian populations)
Common Name:
Pygmy Whitefish (Southwestern Yukon Beringian populations)
Scientific Name:
Prosopium coulterii
Status:
Data Deficient
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This freshwater fish is known from seven lakes in British Columbia and Yukon Territory , but may exist in others. Quantitative data on population sizes, geographic range, and known threats are too limited to determine status.
Range:
YT BC
Status History:
Species considered in November 2016 and placed in the Data Deficient category.
Pygmy Whitefish (Yukon River populations)
Common Name:
Pygmy Whitefish (Yukon River populations)
Scientific Name:
Prosopium coulterii
Status:
Data Deficient
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This freshwater fish is known from three lakes in Yukon Territory, but may exist in others. Quantitative data on population sizes, geographic range, and known threats are too limited to determine status.
Range:
YT
Status History:
Species considered in November 2016 and placed in the Data Deficient category.

Arthropods

Gold-edged Gem
Common Name:
Gold-edged Gem
Scientific Name:
Schinia avemensis
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
B2ab(ii,iii)
Reason for Designation:
This moth is a habitat specialist that needs active dunes or blow-outs with populations of Prairie Sunflower, its sole larval host plant. Large-scale decline in its habitat through dune stabilization has resulted in a more fragmented landscape and a corresponding reduction in the moth. Population viability of this moth at a number of small sandhills is uncertain.
Range:
AB, SK, MB
Status History:
Designated Endangered in April 2006. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2016.
Monarch
Common Name:
Monarch
Scientific Name:
Danaus plexippus
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
A2bce
Reason for Designation:
This large showy species is one of the most well-known butterflies in the world. The Canadian population is migratory with two distinct pathways and cumulative threats at both overwintering sites and along the long migratory routes. The migratory group west of the Rocky Mountains moves between coastal California and southern British Columbia. The group east of the Rocky Mountains represents the vast majority of the Canadian population and moves between the Oyamel Forest of central Mexico and southern Canada east of Alberta. The overwintering sites in central Mexico are extremely small, and threats to these areas include illegal logging and agricultural development, and increased frequency and severity of storms during key congregation times. Declines of greater than 50% have occurred over the past decade.
Range:
NT, BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, PEI, NS, NL
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in April 1997. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2001 and in April 2010. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in November 2016.
Magdalen Islands Grasshopper
Common Name:
Magdalen Islands Grasshopper
Scientific Name:
Melanoplus madeleineae
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This Canadian endemic is restricted to the Magdalen Islands in Québec, where it is known to occur on seven of the eight main islands. Threats to this species are low, but recreational activities, road mortality and habitat loss through predicted coastal erosion may impact this species or its habitat.
Range:
QC
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in November 2016.
Transverse Lady Beetle
Common Name:
Transverse Lady Beetle
Scientific Name:
Coccinella transversoguttata
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This species was once common and broadly distributed throughout most of Canada. Declines started in the 1970s and the species is now absent in southern Ontario and the Maritimes. In some parts of its western and northern range, the species is still commonly recorded. The spread of non-native lady beetles is considered one of the possible threats to this species through competition, intraguild predation, or introduction of pathogens. Non-native lady beetles are less commonly found in places where this species remains.
Range:
YT, NT, NU, BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, PEI, NS, NL
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in November 2016.
Sonora Skipper
Common Name:
Sonora Skipper
Scientific Name:
Polites sonora
Status:
Not at Risk
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This butterfly has a small range in the southern interior of British Columbia. Since it was last assessed, new information has been gathered on its distribution, habitat, host plants, natural history and threats. It is now known to occur in a greater number of natural and disturbed sites, including meadows, roadsides and clearcuts that typically have wet seepages or some form of standing water. It also has much broader host plant preferences than previously known and some ability to use non-native species to complete life stages. Threats remain low and some potential impacts such as clear-cut logging can result in habitat creation and corridors for dispersal for this butterfly.
Range:
BC
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in April 2006. Status re-examined and designated Not at Risk in November 2016.

Molluscs

Mapleleaf (Saskatchewan – Nelson Rivers population)
Common Name:
Mapleleaf (Saskatchewan – Nelson Rivers population)
Scientific Name:
Quadrula quadrula
Status:
Threatened
Assessment Criteria:
B2ab(ii,iii,v)
Reason for Designation:
This heavy-shelled mussel has a small range and few locations, and occurs in habitat projected to continue to decline in quality. Present and ongoing threats include pollution from agricultural effluent, urban wastewater, and industrial sources. The arrival and establishment of invasive Zebra Mussel in 2013 represents a new threat of likely high severity. This change in status is a result of new surveys revealing previously unknown locations.
Range:
MB
Status History:
Designated Endangered in April 2006. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in November 2016.
Mapleleaf (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence population)
Common Name:
Mapleleaf (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence population)
Scientific Name:
Quadrula quadrula
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This heavy-shelled mussel, shaped like a maple leaf, has a limited distribution in southern Ontario. There is evidence of an ongoing, but slight, decline in the range over the last three generations. Low-impact threats, including those from Zebra and Quagga mussels, habitat alteration, and pollution continue. Despite these threats, this population is estimated to be large (millions of animals) and apparently stable at a number of locations in Lake St. Clair, Lake Erie, and western Lake Ontario watersheds. The change in status since the original report is a result of increased sampling effort across the region, newly discovered locations, and evidence for recent gene flow across Lake Erie, which suggests the potential for rescue.
Range:
ON
Status History:
Designated Threatened in April 2006. Status re-examined and designated Special Concern in November 2016.

Vascular Plants

Western Prairie Fringed Orchid
Common Name:
Western Prairie Fringed Orchid
Scientific Name:
Platanthera praeclara
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
Reason for Designation:
This species is a globally rare orchid occurring in a restricted portion of tall-grass prairie remnants in southeastern Manitoba. It is threatened by broad-acting processes affecting habitat extent and quality, such as changes in the fire regime and modifications in soil moisture conditions due to drainage ditching and climate change.
Range:
MB
Status History:
Designated Endangered in April 1993. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000 and November 2016.
American Hart's-tongue Fern
Common Name:
American Hart's-tongue Fern
Scientific Name:
Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This perennial evergreen fern occurs in some deeply shaded Sugar Maple woods on limestone and dolostone habitats of the Niagara Escarpment of southern Ontario. There are many individuals located within many subpopulations; however, they are restricted to a small geographic area, and some subpopulations are very small. Most of the global population occurs in Canada and ongoing threats, such as logging and quarrying, may place the species at heightened risk if the threats are not halted.
Range:
ON
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in November 2000 and in November 2016.
Leiberg's Fleabane
Common Name:
Leiberg's Fleabane
Scientific Name:
Erigeron leibergii
Status:
Data Deficient
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
This perennial herb has only been collected from one site in south central British Columbia; field surveys suggest that it may have been lost from that site. Nearby searches failed to find any other subpopulations. There is uncertainty in whether a viable population was, or is, established because much of the potential habitat is difficult to access. Uncertainty in whether the species still occurs in Canada and if, and when, the one known population was lost, prevents a status determination at this time.
Range:
BC
Status History:
Species considered in November 2016 and placed in the Data Deficient category.

Mosses

Nugget Moss
Common Name:
Nugget Moss
Scientific Name:
Microbryum vlassovii
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
D1
Reason for Designation:
In Canada, this globally rare moss is known from only three localized sites in semi-arid areas of south-central British Columbia. One of the sites is extirpated and another has not been seen since 1980. The moss grows on fine soils on the steep portions of silt banks in early stages of plant community development in semi-arid grassland ecosystems. The extremely small populations render this moss vulnerable to disturbance. Threats include road development and maintenance, recreational activities, and competition from vascular plants.
Range:
BC
Status History:
Designated Endangered in November 2006 and in November 2016.

Lichens

Golden-eye Lichen (Great Lakes population)
Common Name:
Golden-eye Lichen (Great Lakes population)
Scientific Name:
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus
Status:
Endangered
Assessment Criteria:
B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1
Reason for Designation:
This population now consists of a single individual on a single Red Oak tree found in Sandbanks Provincial Park on Lake Ontario. Trend data are limited, but suggest that this population, which is associated with deciduous host trees, was likely always rare in this province. The number of mature individuals of this lichen has declined due to a combination of threats, which include air pollution, human disturbance, invasive species and severe weather. A single natural or human-induced event could lead to the loss of the entire population.
Range:
ON
Status History:
Designated Endangered in November 2016.
Golden-eye Lichen (Prairie / Boreal population)
Common Name:
Golden-eye Lichen (Prairie / Boreal population)
Scientific Name:
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus
Status:
Special Concern
Assessment Criteria:
not applicable
Reason for Designation:
Approximately 99% of the known population for this lichen occurs within 15 km of Spruce Woods Provincial Forest in south-central Manitoba, but scattered occurrences extend from southern Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba to Rainy Lake in northwestern Ontario. Threats to this population include changes in the frequency and severity of fires, climate change, recreational activities and livestock grazing. These threats are expected to contribute to a further decline in the lichen, its habitat and its preferred White Spruce host.
Range:
MB, ON
Status History:
Designated Special Concern in November 2016.

The assessment of Caribou (Rangifer tarandus), Eastern Migratory population, was deferred until April 2017 to incorporate soon to be released new information. The review of classification of the Seaside Centipede Lichen (Heterodermia sitchensis) was completed. COSEWIC decided that a fully updated status report is required to assess the status of this wildlife species.

2017/03/14